- As many as two-thirds of patients experience cognitive impairment or decline following stroke. Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA).
- Over 63% of stroke survivors display abnormalities in cognition. Nature Neuroscience, 2000.
- Approximately 16 – 20% of patients with cognitive impairment improve. Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA).
- Aphasia is present in 21 – 38% of acute stroke patients. Pederson PM. Ann Neurol, 1995.
Cognitive-Communication Research Findings
- Computer-based Cognitive-Communication Training can result in improved language and communication skills.
- Memory treatment techniques directed to improve specific skills may be effective for increasing specific behaviors rather than improving memory function.
- Assistive technology to perform functional activities is recommended for individuals with moderate or severe memory impairment.
- Group communication treatment can produce clinically meaningful improvements in language and functional communication.
Search Cognitive-Communication Products
Research Database for Communication Disorders
speechBITE, launched in 2008 by a team of speech pathologists from the University of Sydney, is a database of intervention studies across the scope of speech pathology practice.
Cognitive-Communication Outcome Measures
- Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test – The ANELT is designed to assess the level of verbal communicative abilities of individuals with aphasia. A second goal of the ANELT is to estimate a client’s change on verbal communicative abilities over time.
- Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination – The BDAE is designed to diagnose aphasia and related disorders. This test evaluates various perceptual modalities (auditory, visual, and gestural), processing functions (comprehension, analysis, problem-solving) and response modalities (writing, articulation, and manipulation). The BDAE can be used by neurologists, psychologists, speech language pathologists and occupational therapists.
- Cambridge Cognition Examination – The CAMCOG is the cognitive and self-contained part of the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMDEX). The CAMCOG is a standardized instrument used to measure the extent of dementia, and to assess the level of cognitive impairment. The measure assesses orientation, language, memory, praxis, attention, abstract thinking,
perception and calculation.
- Clock Drawing Test – The CDT is used to quickly assess visuospatial and praxis abilities, and may determine the presence of both attention and executive dysfunctions.
- Color Trails Test – The Color Trails Test (CTT) is a language-free version of the Trail Making Test (TMT) that was developed to allow for broader cross-cultural assessment of sustained attention and divided attention in adults.
- Executive Function Performance Test – The Executive Function Performance Test is a performance-based assessment of executive function through observation of four Instrumental Activities of Daily Living.
- Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test – The Frenchay Aphasia Screening Test (FAST) was developed to provide healthcare professionals working with patients who might have aphasia with a quick and simple method to identify the presence of a language deficit. The FAST was intended to be used as a screening device to identify those patients having communication difficulties who should be referred for a more detailed evaluation performed by a speech and language pathologist.
- Kettle Test – The Kettle Test was developed as a brief performance-based measure designed to assess cognitive skills in a functional context.
- Mini-Mental State Examination – The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was originally developed as a brief screening tool to provide a quantitative evaluation of cognitive impairment and to record cognitive changes over time.The MMSE briefly measures orientation to time and place, immediate recall, short-term verbal memory, calculation, language, and construct ability.
- Multiple Errands Test – The Multiple Errands Test (MET) evaluates the effect of executive function deficits on everyday functioning through a number of real-world tasks (e.g. purchasing specific items, collecting and writing down specific information, arriving at a stated location). Tasks are performed in a hospital or community setting within the constraints of specified rules. The participant is observed performing the test and the number and type of errors (e.g. rule breaks, omissions) are recorded.
- Trail Making Test – The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a widely used test to assess executive function in patients with stroke. Successful performance of the TMT requires a variety of mental abilities including letter and number recognition mental flexibility, visual scanning, and motor function.
- Western Aphasia Battery – The Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) is a diagnostic tool used to assess the linguistic skills and main nonlinguistic skills of adults with aphasia. This provides information for the diagnosis of the type of aphasia and identifies the location of the lesion causing aphasia.
Evidence-Based Review of Stroke Rehabilitation