- 50% of stroke survivors are likely to regain some functional use of the upper limb. Broeks JG et al. Disabl and Rehabil, 1999.
- 41% of all patients had limited hand use at 3 months and 45% at 18 months after stroke. Welmer AK et al. J Rehabil Med, 2008.
- At 6 months post stroke, some dexterity was found in 38% and complete functional recovery was seen in 11.6% of patients. Kwakkel G et al. Stroke, 2003.
Arm and Hand Research Findings
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Arm and Hand Outcome Measures
- ABILHAND – The ABILHAND is an interview-based assessment tool that measures a patient’s perceived difficulty using his/her hands to perform manual activities in daily life. The ABILHAND assesses active function of the upper limbs. The tool measures an individual’s ability to perform bimanual tasks, regardless of strategies used to complete the task.
- Action Research Arm Test – The Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) is an evaluative measure to assess specific changes in limb function among individuals who sustained cortical damage resulting in hemiplegia. It assesses a client’s ability to handle objects differing in size, weight and shape and therefore can be considered to be an arm-specific measure of activity limitation. Purchase ARAT at SaliaRehab.
- Box and Blocks Test – The Box and Block Test (BBT) measures unilateral gross manual dexterity. It is a quick, simple and inexpensive test. It can be used with a wide range of populations, including clients with stroke.
- Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory – The Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is a functional assessment of the recovering arm and hand after stroke. The CAHAI compliments the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment.
- Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand – The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) is a self-report questionnaire that measures disability and symptoms of upper limb musculoskeletal disorders.
- Disability Assessment Scale – The Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) evaluates upper limb functional disability in patients with spasticity following stroke.
- Frenchay Arm Test – The Frenchay Arm Test (FAT) is a measure of upper extremity proximal motor control and dexterity during ADL performance in patients with impairments of the upper extremity resulting from neurological conditions. The FAT is an upper extremity specific measure of activity limitation.
- Fugl-Meyer Assessment – The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) is a stroke-specific, performance-based impairment index. It is designed to assess motor functioning, balance, sensation and joint functioning in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia.
- Jebsen Hand Function Test – The Jebsen Hand Function Test assesses fine motor skills, weighted and non-weighted hand function activities during performance of activities of daily living.
- Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients – The MESUPES measures quality of movement performance of the hemiparetic arm and hand in stroke patients.
- Motor Assessment Scale – The Motor Assessment Scale (MAS) is a performance-based scale that was developed as a means of assessing everyday motor function in patients with stroke. The MAS is based on a task-oriented approach to evaluation that assesses performance of functional tasks rather than isolated patterns of movement.
- Nine Hole Peg Test – The Nine Hole Peg Test (NHPT) was developed to measure finger dexterity, also known as fine manual dexterity. It can be used with a wide range of populations, including clients with stroke. Additionally, the NHPT is a relatively inexpensive test and can be administered quickly.
- Purdue Pegboard Test – The Purdue Pegboard Test is a test of fingertip dexterity and gross movement of the hand, fingers and arm in patients with impairments of the upper extremity resulting from neurological and musculoskeletal conditions.
- Stroke Arm Ladder – The Stroke Arm Ladder was developed from an existing bank of test items used to evaluate upper extremity function in patients with stroke. The Stroke Arm Ladder incorporates observable tests of capacity or performance and questions aimed at identifying activity and participation components of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The measure includes items that cover a wide range of difficulty levels.
- Upper Extremity Function Test – Upper Extremity Function Test (UEFT) is an evaluative measure to assess upper extremity functional impairment and the severity of impairment in patients exhibiting dysfunction in the upper extremity.
- Wolf Motor Function Test – The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) quantifies upper extremity (UE) motor ability through timed and functional tasks.
Evidence-Based Review of Stroke Rehabilitation